Application of liquids with various refractive indexes allow for the modification of dispersion properties of the fiber without changing its geometrical parameters, which seems to be very practical Pniewski et al. Moreover fiber properties can be further dynamically modified by means of temperature and pressure adjustment, since liquids are much more sensitive to these parameters than glass itself. It has been previously shown that change of temperature of liquid results in the zero dispersion wavelength ZDW shift Karasawa ; Park et al.
In both these studies the authors present numerical results for dispersion properties of fibers, where the role of the core is played by central capillary infiltrated with water. Park et al. A ZDW shift from 0. Karasawa reported results of simulations of ZDW shift from 1.
Practical use of infiltrated PCFs raises an issue of fiber sealing. In most of the reported work authors assume coupling from free space to PCFs with open holes infiltrated with liquids. Due to liquid evaporation this approach cannot be used in practical systems. A sealing of PCF is required instead. Successful sealing of PCF infiltrated with water was reported for example in Nielsen et al. They used a single mode fusion splicer for collapsing the holes in the cladding of the PCF.
Temperature tuning of PCF infiltrated with liquids requires fast and stable system for temperature control. A resistant furnace can be used for this purpose Stepniewski et al. A fast dynamic change of temperature can be obtained with Peltier plate, where the fibre is mounted with thermal conductive glue to the plate Wolinski et al.
Since thermal expansion of liquids is higher than glass one, we should consider this issue in the case of hermetically sealed PCF infiltrated with liquids. However mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between glass and liquid can be neglected because volume of liquids in sealed microchannels is very low. In this paper we present study on influence of temperature and infiltration of PCF with water on fiber dispersion characteristics.
We consider infiltration with water because it is most common solvent used for biomolecules. Water can be further modified with bioluminescent particles used as nonlinear medium to stimulate supercontinuum generation Cho et al. PCFs infiltrated with pure water were also successfully used for supercontinuum generation Bethge et al. We use a fused silica solid core PCF with holes ordered in a hexagonal lattice, which consists of 8 rings of holes infiltrated with water. In our model we assume the lattice constant and various filling factors. We suppose that a temperature change of the water infiltrated PCF is interesting and practical method for a fine tuning of zero dispersion wavelength ZDW.
This new approach can be used in applications where fast dynamical compensation of dispersion shift is necessary.
Refractive index of water as a function of wavelength for various temperatures b. The total fiber dispersion consists of material and waveguide dispersion. Unlike in the case of conventional fibers, the waveguide dispersion in PCF can substantially influence total fiber dispersion. In this case material dispersion is a combination of glass material dispersion and liquid material dispersion.
Since photonic structure is very complex it cannot be simply treated as a direct sum of both dispersions. Additionally dispersion characteristics in PCFs can be controlled by lattice constant, hole size, liquid and glass material as well as temperature. It is a main purpose of this study to investigate these characteristics.
Resonance-enhanced multi-octave supercontinuum generation in antiresonant hollow-core fibers
For modelling we used finite difference method, which is commonly used to treat optical properties of fibers with complex structures. The model allows to take into account dispersion properties of the materials used for development of PCF and determine the mode parameters that may propagate in the considered structures. We calculate its effective refractive index, effective mode area and propagation losses for every mode. The analysis is performed in wide range of wavelengths determined by available parameters of used materials.
The air holes are infiltrated with water. The dispersion characteristic of proposed PCF with different diameter of holes infiltrated with water a and without water b. The dependence of the zero dispersion wavelength on the size of the holes infiltrated with and without water. However structures with filling factor of 0. Moreover water has high absorption in proximity of 1. In our simulation water infiltrates only photonic cladding and its influence on attenuation is limited since overlap between fundamental mode and holes infiltrated with water is very small.
As a result we can gain in flat dispersion characteristics due to water presence in photonic cladding and high transmission due to mode guidance in fused silica solid core. Note that observed changes are small when we compare them with an effect of change of hole diameters Fig. The ZDW is blue shifted with increase of the temperature. Submissions utilizing both intrinsic and extrinsic contrasts are welcome, as are studies utilizing the unique contrasts of optics in conjunction with other imaging modalities. For example, optical coherence tomography has experienced explosive growth over the last 25 years, from academic papers to significant commercialization.
OCT, Raman, ultra-high resolution, multi-photon, and other technologies continue to be developed, refined, and applied. This subcategory seeks submissions which explore new technical developments in and applications of label free optical techniques in the context of pre-clinical and clinical questions. The wealth of biologically interesting chromophores and contrast agents, coupled with the high acoustic transmission of many tissues, enable unprecedented imaging of thick tissues.
This subcategory includes advances in technologies and applications of photoacoustics, including theranostics, across length scales. Moreover, fiber optics themselves have been developed as sensing tools. This subcategory broadly includes development and applications of fiber optic sensors and endoscopic tools to clinical and pre-clinical measurements. More broadly, virtual and mixed reality introduce novel challenges for vision science and display engineering. These new technologies have sparked renewed interest for known scientific questions e. In addition, they also open new avenues of research to develop novel ways to deliver rich sensory information to active observers e.
This subcategory focuses on optical enhancements of medical observation over distance e. Additionally, this subcategory encompasses work on the understanding of how human observation can be understood and enhanced through research into human factors and data presentation, understanding of perceptual issues, and novel solutions based on engineering, computational imaging, and vision science. This subcategory encourages submissions from all areas of vision science.
Submissions will be evaluated according to their appeal to the broader OSA community, their relevance to the study of human vision, and their relevance to related industries. This subcategory encourages submission from authors whose work does not fall obviously into one of the above subcategories. Submissions are encouraged in the development and application of high-accuracy numerical methods for computational optics, transformation optics for imaging, optical analogue computing, neural networks, quantum information processing, quantum mechanics in memory and computing, and optical design for computational imaging instruments.
Within the general Information Acquisition and processing category, topics include all areas and yet do not fit the above subtopics. These scopes are sought in but not limited to the areas of head-up display, head-mounted display, see-through display, high-definition display, optical materials and devices for information display, polarization optics, backlight system, touch sensor, sensors on display, human-machine interface, evaluation methodology of display, and application systems in information display.
The topics to be covered include but are not limited to: light-field camera, digital holography, multi-camera system, LiDAR, 3D reconstruction of scene, model-based and image-based view synthesis, passive and active systems, light-field display, holographic display, autostereoscopic display, volume display, hologram, optical devices for 3D display, LC-lens, and applications in information display.
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